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Pharmacy Product - Health Topics- Kidneys and Urinary System

Kidneys and Urinary System

The kidneys are paired organs seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. Part of the urinary system, they are responsible for urine production as well as a number of other homeostatic functions. These include regulation of electrolytes, acid-base balance, and blood pressure; excretion of wastes such as urea and ammonium; reabsorption of glucose and amino acids; and production of hormones including vitamin D and erythropoietin.

Located behind the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.

Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with diseases of the kidney. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical presentations include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction.

In humans, the kidneys are located behind the abdominal cavity, in a space called the retroperitoneum. There are two, one on each side of the spine; they are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. Above each kidney is an adrenal gland . The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the right.[citation needed] The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and the renal fascia. Each adult kidney weighs between 125 and 170 g in males and between 115 and 155 g in females.The left kidney is typically slightly larger than the right.

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