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A clinical neuropsychologist's typical caseload may include people with traumatic brain injury cerebrovascular accidents such as stroke and aneurysm ruptures, brain tumours, epilepsy/seizure disoders, dementias, mental and a wide range of developmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderlearning disabilities, autism and Tourette's syndrome.Clinical neuropsychologists, whose training has included methods of psychotherapy and counselling, can also provide therapeutic services to patients in need of education and emotional support concerning their neurological injuries or illnss.Many clinical neuroychologists are employed by medical schools and hospital especially neurology, psychiatry and rehabilitation facilities, and some work in private practice. They are frequently active in teaching at the university level and conducting research into a wide range of issues concerning human brain-behavior relationships. Some clinical neuropsychologists are also employed by pharmaceutical companies to help develop and test neuropsychological assessment tools.The practice of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry involves studying the cognitive effects of injury or illness to understand normal psychological function. Because of their day-to-day contact with people with brain impairment, many clinical neuropsychologists are active in these research fields.

Clinical psychology is the application of psychology within a clinical ) setting. However, it is often taken to refer primarily to the easing of psychological distress, mental illness or mental health problems. The term was introduced in a paper by the American psychologist Lightner Witmer Clinical psychologists are involved in the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, as well as research about all of these areas of clinical practice. Their clinical work may include the use of 'talk thrapies' ,psychotherapy such as cognitive therapy and psychoanalysis), or the use of psychological tests to assess cerain aspects of psychological functioning.Some clinical psychologists may specialize in understanding,assessing, and treating brain injury and neurocognitive deficits to become clinical neuropsychologists.Prior to the 20th century, there was little, if any, clinical help available for sufferers of mental health problems. In the early 20th century, Sigund Freud developed a therapy known as psychoanalysis. The practice of psychoanalysis wasealth practitioners. Psychoanalytic training is a lengthy endeavour, often taking the analytic candidate, who is already a psychologist or psychiatrist, an additional five to ten years to complete.Clinical psychology developed partly s a result of a need for additional clinicians to treat mental healthproblems, and partly as psychological science advanced to the stage where the fruits of psychological research could be sccessfully applied in clinical settings.

Psychoanalysis was first devised in Vienna in the 1890s by Sigmund Freud, a neurologist interested in finding an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. As a result of talking with these patients, Freud came to believe that their problems stemmed from culturally unacceptable, thus repressed and unconscious, desires and ftasies of a sexual nature, and as his theory developed, he included desires and fantasies of an aggressive nature, as well. Freud considered these aspects of life instinctive drives, libidinal energy/Eros and the death instinct/Thanatos. Freud's description of Eros/Libido included all creative, life-furthering instincts. The Death Instinct represented an instinctive drive to return to a state of calm, or non-existence. Since Freud's day, psychoanalysis has developed in many ways especially as a study of the personal, interpersonal and intersubjective sense of self.

Prominent current schools of psychoanalysis include ego psychology, which emphasizes defense mechanisms and unconscious fantasies; self psychology, which emphasizes the development of a stable sense of self through mutually empathic contacts with other humans; Lacanian psychoanalysis, which integrates psychoanalysis with semiotics and Hegelian philosophy; analytical psychology, which has a more spiritual approach; object relations theory, which stresses the dynamics of onerelationships with internal, fantasized, others; nterpersonal psychoanalysis, which accents the nuances of interprsonal interactions; and relational psychoanalysis, which combines interpersonal psychoanalysis with object-relations theory. Although these schools have dramatically different theories, most of them continue to stress the strong influence of self-deception and the influence a person's past has on their current mental life.A few of the most influential psychoanalysts are Jacob Arlow, Charles Brenner, Erik Erikson, Ronald Fairbairn, Sandor Ferenczi, Sigmund Freud, Andre Green, Heinz Hartmann, Carl Jung, Otto Kernberg, Melanie Klein, Heinz Kohut, Julia Kristeva, Jacques Lacan, Margaret Mahler, Stephen A. Mitchell, David Rapaport, Roy Schafer, Daniel N. Stern, Donald Winnicott, Theodor Reik, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Slavoj Zizek.

The economic model of the mind is rarely used today, but is of historical importance. In the economic model, the mind is pictured as an energy system. Mental energy or "libido" may be distributed in a variety of ways thoughout the system, "cathecting" various activities or processes with energy. The vast majority of analysts have abandoned the economic model because it is somewhat vague and relies heavily on nineteenth century ideas about hydraulics. Still, a small number ofphilosophically minded analysts retain the econmic model because they believe that its vagueness is helpful in alluding to features of mental life that may lie beyond scientific understanding
The conflict modelThe conflict model of the mind is designed to help analysts understand specific mental conflicts. This model of the mind divides the mind into basic units called comprmis-formations. A compromise formation cnsists of a wish, an feeling of discomfort about the wish, and a defense used to eliminate that feeling of discomfort. For example, a patient might have an aggressive wish to attack authority figures, fear tht if he or she were to do so punishment might result, and defensively intellectualize about general problems with authority rather than physically attacking them. The product of the wish, discomfort, and defense takes shape as a compromise between the three. Some influential analystshave argued that the conflict model is the most important psychoanalytic model, distinguishing psychoanalysis from other psychological theories such as humanistic psychology that minimize or ignore mental conflict.

The object-relational model of the mind desribes the mind as structured by internalized relationships with others. This model has it that we all internalize our childhood experiences with other people, and our patterns of thinking, wishing, and feling are organized by these experiences. Psychoanalysts often refer to the internalized other as an "internal object." An analyst might use the object-relational model to understand, for example, a patient who seeks out abusive relationships because of an abusive childhood which has taught her that to be loved, he or she must tolerate abuse. The object-relational model is perhaps the most widely used theory among analysts today.

The intersubjective model.The most recently developed model listed here, intersubjective model is closely related to the object-relational model. Intersubjectivity theory tries to capture the complex ways in which the subjective points of view of different people interact. According to intersubjectivity theory, all of our experiences need of education and emotional support concerning their neurological injuries or illnss.Many clinical neuroychologists are employed by medical schools and hospital especially neurology, psychiatry and rehabilitation facilities, and some work in private practice. They are frequently active in teaching at the university level and conducting research into a wide range of issues concerning human brain-behavior relationships. Some clinical neuropsychologists are also employed by pharmaceutical companies to help develop and test neuropsychological assessment tools.The practice of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry involves studying the cognitive effects of injury or illness to understand normal psychological function. Because of their day-to-day contact with people with brain impairment, many clinical neuropsychologists are active in these research fields.Clinical psychology is the application of psychology within a clinical ) setting. However, it is often taken to refer primarily to the easing of psychological distress, mental illness or mental health problems. The term was introduced in a paper by the American psychologist Lightner Witmer Clinical psychologists are involved in the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, as well as research about all of these areas of clinical practice.

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