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Pharmacists are highly-trained and skilled healthcare professionals who perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcomes for their patients. Pharmacists are also often small-business owners, owning the pharmacy in which they practice. This unique dichotomy is often the subject of debate within the profession in part due to the perception of pharmacists as "common shopkeepers" by many in the community.Pharmacists are represented internationally by the International Pharmaceutical Federation . They are represented at the national level by professional organisations such as the Royal Pharmaceutical the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia and American Pharmacists AssociationSeparation of prescribing from dispensingIn most jurisdictions pharmacists are regulated separately from physicians. That is, the legislation stipulates that the practice of prescribing must be separate from the practice of dispensing. These jurisdictions also usually specify that only pharmacists may supply scheduled pharmaceuticals to the public, and that pharmacists cannot form business partnerships with physicians or give them "kickback" payments.In the minority of jurisdict, doctors are allowed to dispense drugs themselves and the practice of pharmacy is integrated with that of the physician.The reason for the majority rule is the high risk of a conflict of interest. Otherwise, the physician has a financial self-interest in "diagnosing" as many conditions as possible, and in exaggerating their seriousness, because he can then sell more medications to the patient. Such self-interest directly conflicts with the patient's interest in obtaining cost-effective medication.

Community Pharmacy
A pharmacy chemist; or drugstore in the is the place where most pharmacists practice the profession of pharmacy. It is community pharmacy where the dichotomy of the profession exists health professionals who are also retailers.Community pharmacies usually consist of a retail storefront, with a dispensary where medications are stored and dispensed. The dispensary is subject to pharmacy legislation; with requirements for storage conditions, compulsory texts, equipment, etc., specified in legislation. Where it was once the case that pharmacists stayed within the dispensary compounded/dispensed medications; there has been an increasing trend towards the use of trained dispensary technicians while the pharmacist spends more time communicating with patients.There is a requirement that all pharmacies must have a pharmacist on-duty at all times it is open. In many jurisdictions it is also a requirement that the owner of a pharmacy must be a registered pharmacist. This latter requirement has been revoked in many jurisdictions, such that many retailers now include a pharmacy as department of their store.

Hospital Pharmacy
In much the same way that hospital pharmacists have different roles to community pharmacists, hospital pharmacies have different roles to community pharmacies. Some pharmacists in hospital pharmacies may have more complex clinical medication management issues whereas pharmacists in community pharmacies often have more complex business and customer relations issues.Unlike community pharmacies, which are usually independently owned, hospital pharmacies can usually be found within the premises of the hospital. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, incuding more than would be feasible in the community setting. Traditionally, hospital pharmacies have also prepared various injectable preparations such as saline, total parenteral nutrition , and other drug ifusions; but there has been a trend to outsource these unctions to specialised pharmaceutical companies.The future of pharmacyIn the coming decades pharmacists will become more integral parts of the health care system. Rather than simply a dispenser of medication, pharmacists will be paid for their cognitive skills. This paradigm shift has already commenced in some countries, for instance pharmacists in Australia receive remuneration from the Australian Government for conducting comprehensive Home Medicines Reviews. Many universities are altering their programs to increase emphacues on mental health and neurological illness, heh psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behaviour including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life or in research into the psychological impact of health and social care.

Industrial and organizational psychology
Involved with the application of psychology to the world of business, commerce and the function of organizations, industrial and organisational psychology focuses to varying degrees on the psychology of the workforce, customer, and consumer, including issues such as the psychology of recruitment, selecting employees from an applicant pool which overall includes training, performance appraisal, job satisfaction, work behaviour, stress at work and managementis a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Often neuropsychologists are employed a scientists to advance scientific or medical knowledge. Cognitive neuropsychology is particularly concernedthe understanding of brain injury in an attempt to work out normal psychological function. Clinical neuropsychology is the application of neuropsychology for the clinical management of patients with neurocognitive deficits.Social psychologySocial psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate h other. Social Psychology aims to understand how we make sense of socal situations. For example, this could involve the influence of others on an individual's behaviour the perception and understanding of social cues, or the formation of attitudes or stereotypes about other people. Social cognition is a common approach and involves a mostly cognitive and scientific approach to understanding social behaviour.

Criticisms of psychology
Psychology has always been a controversial discipline. Some criticisms of psychology have been made on ethical and philosophical grounds. Some have argued that by subjecting the human mind to experimentation and statistical study, psychologists objectify persons. Because it treats human beings as things, as objects that can be examined by experiment, psychology is sometimes portrayed as dehumanizing. It has been argued that ultimately, quatitative psychological research ignores or downplays what is most essential about being human.Another common criticism of psychology concerns its fuzziness as a science. Since it relies on "soft"methods such as statistical analyis and questioaires, some have said, psychology is not as scientific as it claims to be. Many believe thine which agrees on very little about how the mind works. This criticism, however, cannot be applied universally to psychology, as some areas within the discipline, such as behaviorism or neuropsychology, advocate only the scientific method. In defending their discipline, psychologists will often point out that astronomy's claim to being a science is also open to argument because it's theories are largely untestable, being only open to observation Topics in psychologyAlthough in principle, psychology aims to explain all aspects of thought and behaviour, some topics have generated particular interest, either due to their perceived importance, their ease of study or popularity. Many of the concepts studied by professional psychology stem from the day-to-day psychology used by most people and learnt through experience. This is known as folk psychology to distinguish it from psychological knowledge developed through formal study and investigation. The extent to which folk psychology should be used as a basis for understanding human experience is controversial, although theories that are based on everyday notions of the mind have been among some of the most successful.

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