;

Ammonium nitrate decomposes into gases including oxygen when heated ; however, ammonium nitrate can be induced to decompose explosively by dtonation. Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling.

There are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions:In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. The examples are Kriewald, Morgan, Oppau, Tessenderloo, and raskwood.
In the second case, the explosion results from a fire that spreads into the ammonium nitrate itself , or to a mixture of an ammonium nitrate with a combustible material during the fire . The fire must be confined at least to a degree for successful transition fro a fire to an explosion a phenomeon known as "transition fro a decomposition or deflagration", o Pure, compact AN is stable and very difficult to initiate. However, there are numerous cases when even imure AN didn't explode in a fire.

Ammonium nitrat decomposes in temperatures aboves stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but in presence of catalysts (combustible materials, acids, metal ions, chlorides the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, This is well-known phenomenon with some types of NPK fertilizers, and is responsible for loss of several cargo ships.

Significant accidental explosions
In a fire broke out in the amatol loading plant in Morgan, New Jersey. Over pounds of explosives were present on site, of tha up to and fire, bu did not detonate. a heavy explosion of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate detonated during attempts to break up the caked pile with blasting charges (an operation apparently performed several times before, with casualties according to other sources, 50 or over 1000), occurred in the city of Oppau on the grounds of BASF near Ludwigshafen in Germany. Over 700 homes were destroyed, the plant isappeared entirely and was replaced with a crater 50 ft deep and 250 ft in diameter, and the shock was felt 150 miles away. This was the largest man-made disaster in German histoIn in Nixon, New Jersey, ammonium nitrate was being recovered from amatol in order to be used as a fertilizer, when a fire broke out. In April 4 and The barrels were stored in a warehouse with varying humidity for 6 years, so it is believed that they were ignited by friction of the off-specification granular AN was stored flat, separated bypartitions. About 2tons is said to be involved in the explosion, resulting in 31 people dead and 2,442 injured, 34 of them seriously. The blast wave shattered windows in 1.5-3 kilometer distance and the resulting crater was 10 meters deep and 50 meters wide. The exact cause remains unknown. The material damage was estimated at 2.3 billion Euros.
The Ryongchon disaster inin North Korea is suspected to have a shipment of ammonium nitrate involved, together with other explosives. Other usesThe most common use of ammonium nitrate is in fertilizers.Ammonium nitrate is also used in instant cold packs. In this use, ammonium nitrate is mixed with water in an endothermic reaction, which absorbs 26.2 kilojoules of heat per mole of reactant.Due to its low temperature, non-toxic decomposition products, it finds use in gas generator applications such as airbags.Ammonium nitrate is also used in the treatment of titanium ores.Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is also used in the synthesis of methamphetamine.Ammonium nitrate is used in survival kits mixed with zinc dust and ammonuim

The central nervous system represents the largest part of the nervous system. Together with the peripheral nrvous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behaviour.Since the strong theoretical influence of cybernetics in the fifties, the is conceived as a system devoted to information processing, where an appropriate motor output is computed as a response toa sensory input. Yet, many threads of research suggest that motor activity exists well before the maturation of the sensory systems and then, that the senses only influence behaviour without dictating it. This has brought the conception of the as an autonomous system.
The whole originates from the neural plate, a specialised region of the ectoderm, the most external of the three embryonic layers. During embryonic development, the neural plate folds and forms the neural tube. The internal cavity of the neural tube will give rise to the ventricular system. The regions of the neural tube will differentiate progressively into transversal systems. Firs, the whole neural tube will differentiate into its two major subdivisions: spinal cord and brain . Cony the skull and the spinal cord by the vertebrae. The rhombencephalon gives rise to the pons, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata, its cavity becomes the fourth ventricle. The mesencephalon gives rise to the tectum, pretectum, cerebral peduncle and its cavity develops into the mesencephalic duct or cerebral aqueduct. The diencephalon gives rise to the subthalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus and epithalamus, its cavity to the third ventricle. Finally, the telencephalon gives rise to the striatum caudate nucleus and putamen, the hippocampus and the neocortex, its cavity becomes the lateral (first and second ventricles.

Layers
is composed of the epidermis and the dermis. Below these layers lies the hypodermis, which is not usually classified as a layer of skin.The outermost epidermis is made up of stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying basement membrane. It contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. The main type of which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present. The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale. Cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers. They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate and become filled with keratin. eventually reach the corneum and become sloughed off. This process is called keratinization and takes place within about 30 days. This layer of skin is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out.

Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linkedarteriole and a venule. Arterial shunt vessels may bypass the network in ears, the nose and fingertips.The dermis lies below the epidermis and contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscle, glands and lymphatic tissue. It is made up of loose connective tissue otherwise called areolar connective tissue - collagen, elastin and reticular fibres are present. Erector muscles, ed between the hair papilla epidermis, can contract, resulting in the hairfibre pulled upright and consequentially goose bumps. The main cell types are fibroblasts, adipocytes and macrophages. Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands which produce sebum, a mixture of lipids and waxy substances: lubrication, water-proofing, softening and antibactericidal actions are among the many functions of sebum. Sweat glands open up via a duct onto the skin by aThe dermis can be split into the papillary and reticular layers. The papillary layer is outermost and extends into the dermis to supply it with vessels. It is composed of loosely arranged fibres. Papillary ridges make up the lines of the hands. The reticular layer is more dense and is continuous with the hypodermis. It contains the bulk of the structures . The reticular layer is composed of irregularly arranged fibres resists stretching.The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It is made up of loose connective tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes

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