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Famous ophthalmologists

Hermengildo Arruga (Spain)
Ignacio Barraquer (Spain) carried out the first intracapsular lens extraction using enzymatic zonulolysis.
Ramon Castroviejo (Spain) pioneer in corneal transplantation surgery.
Marie Fabry Colinet, wife of Wilhelm Fabry, employs a magnet for removing a foreign body from the eye, 1627.
Florent Cunier (Belgium) founded the world's first ophthalmologic journal, Annales d'Oculistique, 1838.
Jacques Daviel (Normandy) claimed to be the 'father' of modern cataract surgery in that he performed intracapsular extraction instead of needling the cataract or pushing it back into the vitreous. It is said that he carried out the technique on 206 patients in 1752-3, out of which 182 were reported to be successful. These figures are not very credible, given the total lack of both anaesthesia and aseptic technique at that time.
Frans Cornelis Donders (Dutch) published pioneering analyses of ocular biomechanics, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and physiological optics. Made possible the prescribing of combinations of spherical and cylindrical lenses to treat astigmatism.
Sir Stewart Duke-Elder (U.K.) Author of System of Ophthalmology, an immensely influential mid-20th century multivolume compendium of ophthalmic history, embryology, comparative ophthalmology, refraction, ocular basic sciences, medical ophthalmology and therapeutics, but avoiding discussion of surgical techniques (which he viewed as ephemera).
Svyatoslav Fyodorov (Russia) - creator of radial keratotomy
Fred Hollows (New Zealand/Australia) pioneered programs in Nepal, Eritrea, and Vietnam, and among Australian aborigines, including the establishment of cheap laboratory production of intraocular lenses in Nepal and Eritrea.
Sir Harold Ridley (U.K.) may have been the first to successfully implant an artificial intraocular lens 1949, after observing that plastic fragments in the eyes of wartime pilots were well tolerated. He fought for decades against strong reactionary opinions to have the concept accepted as feasible and useful.
Charles L. Schepens (Belgium), pioneer in retinal surgery, developer of the Schepens indirect binocular ophthalmoscope, founder of the Schepens Eye Research Institute.
Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the elder (Austrian) proved that myopia is largely due to an excessive axial length, published influential textbooks on eye disease, and ran annual eye clinics in needy areas long before the concept of volunteer eye camps became popular. His name is still attached to some disease signs, eg, von Arlt's line in trachoma. His son Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the younger, was also an ophthalmologist.
Albrecht von Graefe (Germany) Along with Helmholtz and Donders, one of the 'founding fathers' of ophthalmology as a specialty. A brilliant clinician and charismatic teacher who had an international influence on the development of ophthalmology. A pioneer in mapping visual field defects and diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Introduced a cataract extraction technique that remained the standard for over 100 years, and many other important surgical techniques such as iridectomy. Rationalised the use of many ophthalmically important drugs, including mydriatics & miotics. The founder of the one of the earliest ophthalmic societies (German Ophthalmological Society, 1857) and one of the earliest ophthalmic journals (Graefe's Archives of Ophthalmology). The most important ophthalmologist of the 19th century.
Hermann von Helmholtz, great German polymath, invented the ophthalmoscope (1851) and published important work on physiological optics, including colour vision (1850s).

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