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Nursing is a discipline focused on assisting individuals, families and communities in attaining, re-attaining and maintaining optimal health and functioning.

A nurse practices nursing as a profession. There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse and in many countries, nursing practice is regulated by law. Advanced practice nurses include nurses with advanced education, generally at the graduate school level. There also are nurse reseachers who have PhDs in nursing or other fields and study human responses to health and illness in many settings.

Nurses acknowledge that the Pharmacy Health Topic nursing profession is an essential part of the society from which it has grown. The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. The American Nurses' Association (1980) has defined nursing as "the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems." Nursing diagnoses are unique, bearing little resemblance to medical diagnoses.

Nurses practise in a wide range of settings from hospital to visiting people in their homes. Nursing is the most diverse of all healthcare professions. It is a universal phenomenon appearing in some form in every culture.

Health science:

Health science is a medical discipline of applied science which deals with human or animal health. There are two parts to health science: the study, research, and knowledge of health and the application of that knowledge to improve health, cure infectious diseases, and to understand how humans and animals function. Health science research builds on the pure sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics and also social sciences (for example medical sociology).

There are a wide range of traditional areas of health science. The most common areas are: medicine, nursing, midwifery, and various forms of therapy to supplement the healing process and restore proper activity (e.g. recreational, physical occupational, speech, and respiratory). Health science includes both the study and application of preventing and curing human diseases and disorders. Medical doctors include physicians and surgeons. There are many different branches of medicine; the other health care professions also have specialties or focus on specific populations or settings of care. Other less common medical areas include first aid and triage.

Dental health has grown in importance in recent decades making dentistry a major field of health sciences. Counselling, hospice care, home care, nutrition, medical social work, alternative medicine, pharmacology, and toxicology are all considered part of health science. Veterinary science is the health science dedicated exclusively to the care of animals.

Because health science deals with human life, issues of medical ethics, an important area of ethics, arise frequently. Medical ethics includes questions on topics such as a patient's right to privacy. Euthanasia, abortion, human cloning and genetic engineering are especially controversial issues directly related to health science.

Health science fields are as old as the human race. Humans have always been in need of solutions to various health related issues, such as childbirth. Pharmacy Health Topic With modern technology and the backing of the pure sciences, the scientific accuracy of these fields has greatly improved. Nevertheless, many cultures have and continue to use various herbs and other culturally specific solutions to help solve health problems. These solutions may or may not be backed by any scientific support.

There are a large number of health professions. The terms medicine and medical doctor or M.D. refer to allopathic medicine.


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