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Oral and maxillofacial surgery

Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a specialty of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of congenital or acquired diseases, dysfunction, defects or injuries of the mouth, jaws, face, neck and associated regions. Maxilla refers to the jaws - lower maxilla or lower jaw is currently called the mandible and the term maxilla refers to the upper jaw.

Training
To specialize in oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United States, a graduate of dental school must attend either a four-year or a six-year residency program. The four-year programs grant a certification of specialty training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The six-year programs grant certification plus a Pharmacy Health Topic doctorate degree in medicine (MD).

Scope
Oral and maxillofacial surgery deals with :

Dentoalveolar surgery: surgical removal of impacted teeth, difficult extractions, removal of teeth on medically compromised patients, exposure of teeth for orthodontic reasons.
Diagnosis and treatment of non-cancerous cysts, tumors and growth, cancerous conditions of the oral and facial region, of skin lesions (skin cancers) in the region, facial pain, temporomandibular joint (TMJ, or jaw joint) disorders
Facial bony trauma: fractures of the lower and upper jaw, cheek bones, noses, eye sockets, frontal bone, etc.
Facial soft tissue trauma: repair of facial and oral lacerations
Osseointegrated (bone anchored) implants: dental and craniofacial implants
Adjunctive measures in the treatment of sleep apnea (Mandibular advancement splints and jaw advancement surgery etc)
Orthognathic Surgery (jaw realignment surgery) to maximise facial function and aesthetics
Reconstructive surgery
Pharmacy Health Topic
Nerve surgery
Facial aesthetic surgery
Salivary glands surgery

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