Pharmacy Product Info

Thursday, December 28, 2006

Total parenteral nutrition

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the follow of feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. It is usually used following surgery, when feeding by mouth or using the gut is not possible, when a person's digestive system cannot attract nutrients due to chronic disease, or, alternatively, if a person's nutrient condition cannot be met by enteral feeding (tube feeding) and supplementation. It has been used for comatose patients, although enteral feeding is typically preferable, and less prone to complications. Short-term TPN may be used if a person's digestive system has shut down, and they are at a low sufficient weight to cause concerns about nutrition during a complete hospital stay. Long-term TPN is infrequently used to treat people suffering the extended consequences of an accident or surgery. Most controversially, TPN has unlimited the life of a small number of children born with absent or severely birth-deformed guts. The oldest were eight years aged in 2003.

The favored method of delivering TPN is with a medical infusion pump. A germ-free bag of nutrient solution, between 500 mL and 4 L is provided. The pump infuses a little amount (0.1 to 10 mL/hr) continuously in order to stay the vein open. Feeding schedules vary, but one ordinary regimen ramps up the nutrition over a little hours, levels off the rate for a few hours, and then ramps it down over a few additional hours, in order to simulate a ordinary set of meal times.

The nutrient solution consists of water, glucose, salts, amino acids, vitamins and occasionally emulsified fats. Long term TPN patients sometimes endure from lack of trace nutrients or electrolyte imbalances. Because increased blood sugar usually occurs with TPN, insulin may also be added to the infusion. Infrequently, other drugs are added as well. Chronic TPN is performed through a Hickman line or a Port-a-Cath. In infants, occasionally the umbilical vein is used.

Battery-powered ambulatory mixture pumps are used with chronic TPN patients, and typically the pump and a small (100 ml) bag of nutrient to keep the vein open are accepted in a fanny pack. Outpatient TPN practices are still being sophisticated. Aside from their confidence on a pump, chronic TPN patients live quite normal lives.

The most general complication of TPN use is bacterial infection, typically due to the increased infection risk from having an indwelling middle venous catheter. Liver stoppage may sometimes occur; a recent study at Children's Hospital Boston on the reason suggests it is due to a large difference in omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. When treated with a dissimilar fatty acid infusion (which is not approved for use in the U.S.) numerous patients were able to recover from their condition.

Tuesday, December 26, 2006

Nuclear pharmacy

Nuclear Pharmacy involves the training of radioactive materials that will be used to analyze and treat specific diseases. It was the first pharmacy subject established in 1978 by the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties. Nuclear pharmacy seeks to recover and promote health through the secure and valuable use of radioactive drugs for not only diagnosis but also therapy.

The thought of nuclear pharmacy was first described in 1960 by Captain William H. Briner while at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. Along with Mr. Briner, John E. Christian, who was a lecturer in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University, had written articles and contributed in new ways to set the stage of nuclear pharmacy. William Briner started the NIH Radio pharmacy in 1958. He also brought about principles and procedures significant to the assurance of quality radiopharmaceuticals. Christian developed the first official lecture and laboratory courses in the United States for teaching the necessary principles of radioisotope applications. John Christian and William Briner were both lively on key national committees liable for the development, regulation and utilization of radiopharmaceuticals.

In the mid 1970s a petition was shaped requesting the formation of a Section on Nuclear Pharmacy in the Academy of General Practice, at present called the Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management. On April 23, 1975, the petition was lastly approved by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Trustees. Nuclear pharmacy thus became a fresh area in pharmacy.

Nuclear pharmacists work in an extra relaxed environment compared to other areas of pharmacy, such as hospital pharmacy or trade pharmacy. There is typically no interaction with customers because numerous work in a highly regulated setting where consumers are not allowed.

Although the possible for radiation exposure exists in this field, it is reserved to a minimum by the use of syringes, gloves, and other devices specially designed for radioactive materials. A nuclear pharmacist would use leaded glass shielding, leaded glass plunger shields, and lead containers while working with radioactive fabric. Hence, correct equipment and procedures reduces the risk of hurt to personnel working in a nuclear pharmacy.

Sunday, December 17, 2006

Nursing Home

A nursing home or skilled nursing facility (SNF) is a place of house for people who require constant nursing care and have important deficiencies with activities of daily living. Residents include the elderly and younger adults with corporeal disabilities. Adults 18 or older can stay in a skilled nursing capability to receive physical, occupational, and additional rehabilitative therapies following an accident or illness. In the US, nursing homes are necessary to have a licensed nurse on duty 24 hours a day, and during at least one move each day, one of those nurses must be a Registered Nurse. In April, 2005 there were a sum of 16,094 nursing homes in the United States, down from 16,516 in December, 2002. Some states have nursing homes that are called nursing facilities (NF), which do not have beds specialized for Medicare patients, but can only treat patients whose payments basis is Private Pay or Medicaid.

A SNF is an institution or a separate part of an institution, which is mainly engaged in providing skilled nursing care or rehabilitation services that will facilitate rehabilitation of injured, disabled, or sick persons. Hospitals often have preparations with SNFs to provide follow up care after a patient no longer needs the stage of services that an acute hospital provides. The patient is sent to a SNF to get skilled care / rehabilitation until they are capable to return home (or are at a state where additional improvement is no longer possible).

A nursing home is house facility that provides a room, meals, and help with activities of daily living and recreation. Usually, nursing home residents have physical or mental problems that keep them from living on their own. They generally require daily assistance.

In common, SNF care is covered under health insurance plans and Medicare, where nursing home care is not. Many patients who live in nursing homes often fatigue their personal finances at some point, and in the U.S.A., once that happens; they are qualified for Medicaid (care for the poor) which will pay the nursing home for the care they offer. However, several nursing homes would argue that the amount Medicaid pays does not wrap the cost they face in providing that care.

Tuesday, December 12, 2006

National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the "public face" of the three widely funded health care systems of Great Britain (Northern Ireland does not use the title) and the full title of the national public health service for England.

The NHS provides the majority of healthcare in England, from common practitioners to Accident and Emergency Departments, long-term healthcare and dentistry. It was founded in 1948 and has become an integral division of English society, culture and everyday life: the NHS was once described by Nigel Lawson, former Chancellor of the Exchequer, as "the national religion". Private health care has continued similar to the NHS, paid for largely by private insurance, but it is used only by a little percentage of the population, and generally as a top-up to NHS services.

NHS services are mainly "free at the point of delivery", paid for by taxes; the NHS's budget for 2006–07 is £96 billion. Employing well over 1 million public, the NHS is the largest employer in Europe and one of the largest employers in the world, (supposed to be third or fifth, according to different commentators). A learn by Professor Nick Bosanquet for the Reform think tank predicts an annual shortage of nearly £7bn in 2010.

The NHS is frequently the goal of criticism. For example, levels of the MRSA "super bug" in UK hospitals have been the matter of scrutiny in recent years. The ongoing NHS IT improve has also been subject to recent scrutiny. Availability of NHS dentistry is deprived, with by March 2006 two million people in the UK trying but failing to record with an NHS dentist and overall figures of 55% of adults and 36% of children not registered with an NHS dentist. Following the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) hospital building programmer, many hospitals have found themselves in debt.

Several high profile scandals have also been accredited to the NHS over the years such as the Alder Hey organs scandal and the current death of a 9 year old boy died when a breathing device was re-used.

Thursday, December 07, 2006

Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the movement of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they create a new effect that neither produces on its own. Classically, interaction between drugs comes to mind (drug-drug interaction). However, interactions may also survive between drugs & foods (drug-food interactions), as well as drugs & herbs (drug-herb interactions).

Generally speaking, drug interactions are greatest avoided, due to the possibility of poor or surprising outcomes. However, in some instances, drug interactions have been intentionally used to great effect, such as the co-administration of probenecid with penicillin proceeding to mass production of penicillin. Because penicillin was difficult to manufacture, it was worthwhile to find a way to decrease the amount of penicillin required for a course of therapy. Since probenecid reduces the emission of penicillin from the body, a dose of penicillin will stay around the body for a longer period of time when taken with probenecid. Hence, probenecid allows individuals to take less penicillin over classes of therapy. In the present day, probenecid is usually no longer used for this purpose, since penicillin is now produced on a large-scale basis.

A contemporary example of a drug interaction used as a benefit is the co-administration of carbidopa with levodopa (obtainable as Carbidopa/levodopa). Levodopa is used in the management of Parkinson's disease and must attain the brain in an un-metabolized state to be beneficial. When given by itself, levodopa is metabolized in the peripheral tissues exterior the brain, which decreases the effectiveness of the drug and increases the risk of unfavorable effects. However, since carbidopa inhibits the peripheral metabolism of levodopa, the co-administration of carbidopa with levodopa allows extra levodopa to reach the brain un-metabolized and also reduces the risk of side effects.

Drug interactions may be the result of different processes. These processes may include alterations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug, such as alterations in the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of a drug. Alternatively, drug interactions may be the effect of the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug, e.g. the co-administration of a receptor adversary and an agonist for the same receptor.

Monday, December 04, 2006

Drug discovery

In medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the procedure by which drugs are discovered and/or designed. In the past the majority drugs have been discovered either by identifying the active ingredient from customary remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A new approach has been to appreciate how disease and infection are controlled at the molecular and physiological level and to aim specific entities based on this knowledge.

The procedure of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening, and assays for therapeutic effectiveness. Once a compound has shown its price in these tests, it will begin the method of drug development prior to clinical trials.

Despite advances in technology and accepting of biological systems, drug discovery is still a long process with low rate of fresh therapeutic discovery. Information on the human genome, its series and what it encodes has been hailed as a potential windfall for drug discovery, promising to almost eliminate the bottleneck in therapeutic targets that has been one warning factor on the rate of therapeutic discovery. However, data indicates that "new targets" as opposed to "established targets" are extra prone to drug discovery project failure in common. This data corroborates several thinking underlying a pharmaceutical industry trend beginning at the twist of the twenty-first century and enduring today which finds more risk aversion in target selection between multi-national pharmaceutical companies.

The definition of "target" itself is amazing debated within the pharmaceutical industry. However, the difference between a "new" and "established" target can be made without a full considerate of just what a "target" is. This distinction is normally made by pharmaceutical companies engaged in discovery and development of little molecule therapeutics. In common, "new targets" are all those targets that are not "recognized targets" but which have been or are the topic of drug discovery campaigns. These classically include newly discovered proteins, or proteins whose function has now become clear as a consequence of basic scientific research.