Pharmacy Product Info

Monday, April 30, 2007

Osteopathic medicine

Osteopathic medicine is "a whole system of medical care with a philosophy that combines the needs of the patient with modern practice of medicine, surgery and obstetrics. The importance is on the interrelationship between structure and function, and has an approval of the body's ability to heal itself." Outside the United States, "osteopathic medicine" is frequently used interchangeably with "osteopathy". Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine, or D.O.s, are skilled to apply the philosophy of treating the whole person to the avoidance, diagnosis and action of illness, disease and injury using conservative medical practice such as drugs and surgery, along with physical therapy (Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine or OMM).

As with Doctors of Medicine (M.D.s), D.O.s educated in the United States are completely licensed physicians and surgeons who apply the full scope of medicine. Currently, there are 27 qualified osteopathic medical schools in the United States and 125 accredited U.S. allopathic medical schools.

D.O. and M.D.-granting U.S. medical schools have related curricula. Usually, the first two years are classroom-based, even as the third and fourth years consist of clinical rotations through the main specialties of medicine. Upon graduation, both D.O. and M.D. physicians may opt to follow residency training programs. Depending on state licensing laws, osteopathic medical physicians may also be necessary to complete a one-year rotating internship at a hospital accepted by the AOA - the American Osteopathic Association.

Osteopathic medical physicians also have the chance to pursue allopathic residency programs; however, the converse is not at present permitted. Within the U.S., osteopathic medical physicians perform in all medical specialties including, but not incomplete to, interior medicine, emergency medicine, dermatology, surgery, and radiology. There is no distinction in compensation between allopathic and osteopathic physicians. Physician salaries do differ between the various medical specialties. Osteopathic medical physicians educated in countries exterior of the U.S. do not pursue the same curriculum as U.S.-trained D.O.'s. Their range of practice is limited primarily to musculoskeletal conditions and action of some other conditions using OMM and a variety of alternative medicine methods.

Thursday, April 19, 2007

Emergency medicine

Emergency medicine is a division of medicine that is trained in a hospital emergency department, in the field, and other locations where first medical treatment of illness takes place. Just as clinicians work by immediacy rules under huge emergency systems, emergency physicians base their follow on a triage system. Emergency medicine focuses on diagnosis and treatment of sharp illnesses and injuries that need immediate medical attention. While not typically providing long-term care, emergency medicine physicians and pre-hospital workers still provide care with the aspire of improving long-term patient outcome. In the United States, several people use the emergency department for outpatient care that could be provided at a doctor's office. As a consequence, much of emergency room care is common practice (coughs, colds, aches, pains).

"Emergency medicine is a pasture of practice based on the information and skills required for the avoidance, diagnosis and management of acute and vital aspects of illness and wound affecting patients of all age groups with a full range of undifferentiated physical and behavioral disorders. It additional encompasses an understanding of the development of pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency medical systems and the skills essential for this development." An alternative of an Emergency Department is an Urgent Care Center, often staffed by physicians, nurses and nurse practitioners who may or may not be properly trained in emergency medicine. Urgent Care Centers offer handling to patients who desire or need immediate care, but who do not attain the acuity that requires care in an emergency department.

Emergency Medicine involves a huge amount of general medicine but involves almost all fields of medicine counting the surgical sub-specialties. Emergency physicians are tasked with seeing a huge number of patients, treating their illnesses and admitting them to the hospital as essential. The subject requires a broad field of information and advanced technical skills often including surgical procedures, trauma resuscitation, advanced cardiac existence support and higher airway management. Emergency physicians preferably have the skills of many specialists, the aptitude to manage a difficult airway (anesthesia), suture a multifaceted laceration (plastic surgery), treat a mind attack (internist), work-up a expectant patient with vaginal bleeding (ob / gyn), and end a bad nosebleed (ENT). By and large, no other field prepares a physician to deal with all of the over, and in several ways, the emergency physician is a "jack of all trades".

Wednesday, April 11, 2007

Medical research

Medical research is essential research or applied research conducted to help the body of information in the field of medicine. Medical research can be separated into two general categories: the assessment of new treatments for both safety and usefulness in what are termed scientific trials, and all other research that contributes to the growth of new treatments. The latter is termed preclinical research if its objective is specifically to elaborate facts for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

The increased long life of humans over the past century can be considerably attributed to advances ensuing from medical research. Among the main benefits have been vaccines for measles and polio, insulin action for diabetes, classes of antibiotics for treating a host of maladies, medication for high blood stress, improved treatments for AIDS, statins and further treatments for atherosclerosis, innovative surgical techniques such as microsurgery, and increasingly winning treatments for cancer. New, helpful tests and treatments are predictable as a result of the human genome project. Challenges remain, however, including the look of antibiotic resistance and the so-called plumpness epidemic.

Medical research is extremely regulated. National regulatory establishment oversee and monitor medical research, such as for the growth of new drugs. In the USA the Food and Drug Administration oversees new drug improvement, in Europe the European Medicines Agency, and in Japan the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan). The World Medical Association develops the moral standards for the medical profession, concerned in medical research. The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) works on the production of rules and guidelines for the growth of new medication, such as the strategy for Good Clinical Practice (GCP).

Friday, April 06, 2007

Patent medicine

Patent medicine is the rather misleading term given to different medical compounds sold under a mixture of names and labels, though they were, for the most part, really medicines with trademarks, not patented medicines. In antique times, such medicine was called nostrum remedium, "our remedy" in Latin, thus the name "nostrum," that is also used for such medicines; it is a medicine whose effectiveness is questionable and whose ingredients are typically kept secret. The name patent medicine has become mainly linked with the sale of drug compounds in the nineteenth century under wrap of colorful names and even more colorful claims. The endorsement of patent medicines was one of the first main products of the advertising industry, and many advertising and sales techniques were pioneered by patent medicine promoters. Patent medicine marketing often talked up exotic ingredients, even if their real effects came from more colorless drugs. One excellent group of patent medicines - liniments that supposedly contained snake oil, supposedly a universal panacea - made snake oil salesman a permanent synonym for a charlatan.

The expression patent medicine comes from the early days of the marketing of medical elixirs, when those who found favor with royalty were issued letters patent authorizing the use of the royal support in advertising. The name wedged well after the American Revolution made these endorsements by the crowned heads of Europe outdated. Few if any of the nostrums were really patented; chemical patents came into utilize in the USA in 1925, and in any case attempting to control a drug, medical device, or medical process was considered unprincipled by the standards upheld during the era of patent medicine.

Instead, the compounders of these nostrums used a prehistoric version of branding to differentiate themselves from the crowd of their competitors. Many common names from the era live on in brands such as Luden's cough drops, Lydia E. Pinkham's vegetable complex for women, Fletcher's Castoria, and still Angostura bitters, which were once marketed as a stomach remedy. Several of these medicines, though sold at high prices, were made from quite inexpensive ingredients. Their work was well known within the pharmacy trade, and druggists would trade medicines of almost identical work that they had manufactured themselves. To defend profits, the branded medicine advertisements laid great stress on the brand-names, and urged the public to believe no substitutes.