Pharmacy Product Info

Monday, October 30, 2006


Apothecary is a name for a medical practitioner who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients - a role currently served by a pharmacist.

In addition to pharmacy the apothecary also offered common medical advice and a range of services that are now performed exclusively by other specialist practitioners, such as surgery and midwifery. Apothecaries often operated through a sell shop, which in addition to ingredients for medicines, would also trade tobacco and patent medicines.

In its study of herbal and chemical ingredients, the job of the apothecary may be regarded as a precursor of the new sciences of chemistry and pharmacology, previous to the formulation of the technical method.

From the 15th century the apothecary gained the position of a skilled practitioner, but by the conclusion of the 19th century the medical professions had taken on their current institutional figure, with defined roles for doctors and surgeons, and the function of the apothecary was more narrowly conceived as that of dispensing pharmacist.

In England, the apothecaries merited their own uniform company, the Worshipful culture of Apothecaries, founded in 1617. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became the earliest woman to gain a medical qualification in Britain when she approved the Society's examination in 1865.

Apothecaries used the now obsolete apothecaries' compute to provide precise weighing of little quantities.

Thursday, October 26, 2006

Emergency medical services

The Emergency Medical Service system is liable for providing pre-hospital care by paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMT's), and medical initial responders. The aim of EMS is to provide early action to those in need of urgent medical care, and ultimately rapid shipping to an Emergency department. Stabilizing patients early considerably increases their chances of survival, particularly in the occurrence of a heart attack, diabetic emergency, or severe physical trauma. Many EMT responsibilities also need the EMT to extricate the patient from where they are whether it is in a tight position in a home, or from a vehicle using the Jaws of Life.

EMS providers job under the license and indirect supervision of a medical director or board-certified physician who oversees the policies and protocols of an exacting EMS system or organization. Due to the nature of the location in which EMS personnel must work, equipment and events are necessarily limited; however, prehospital personnel are able to offer a high level of advanced care.

EMS professionals are trained to chase a formal and carefully designed conclusion tree, more commonly referred to as a protocol or regular of care, which has been created and accepted by physicians. The stress in emergency services is on following correct practice quickly and exactly rather than on making in-depth diagnoses that require much specialized training and experience. The use of a conclusion tree allows EMS workers to be trained in a much shorter time than physicians, with EMT-Basic classes, for example, as little as 1-5 months.

National EMS standards for the US are resolute by the U.S. Department of Transportation and adapted by each state's Department of EMS, and further changed by Regional Medical Advisory Committees or by other committees or smooth individual EMS providers. In addition, the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, an autonomous body, was created in 1970 at the proposal of President Lyndon B. Johnson in an effort to provide a nationwide agreement on protocols and a nationally accepted certification. National Registry certification is extensively accepted in some parts of the U.S., while other areas still keep their own, separate protocols and teaching curricula.

Tuesday, October 24, 2006

Pharmacy technician

Pharmacy technician is a job name for a pharmacy staff member "who works below the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist, and performs a lot of pharmacy-related functions". In many cases, job duties include as long as medication and other health care products to patients. Pharmacy technicians frequently do the routine tasks associated with preparing arranged medication, and the manual labor part of providing drugs to patients. Most pharmacy technicians have merely on-the-job training, but many employers good turn those who have finished a formal training and certification process. That conference this certification given by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board earns the technician the professional title "CPT" (Certified Pharmacy Technician) to track their name. This type of teaching program is usually presented by the military, some hospitals, proprietary schools, vocational or technical colleges, and society colleges.

Pharmacy technicians work in a diversity of locations. According to a 2002 United States Department of Labor statement, about two-thirds worked in sell pharmacies, both independently owned or fraction of a drugstore, grocery store or mass vendor chain. An extra 22% of pharmacy technician jobs were in hospitals, while a little portion worked in mail-order or Internet pharmacies, clinics, pharmaceutical wholesalers, and the Federal Government.

Pharmacy technicians who work in a hospital, nursing home or assisted-living-type facilities have extra responsibilities. In various circumstances, they will read patient charts in combination with a prescription, verified by a physician and a pharmacist, prior to preparing and physically delivering medicine to nurses, who manage it to patients. Technicians may also be liable for managing robotic organizational systems that stock and classify 24-hour supplies of medicine for every patient in a health care facility. Technicians package and mark every dose of medication individually, either by hand or with packaging machines. These packages are synchronized with a computer using bar codes, and make it probable to automate pharmacy-side drug relief: a package labeled by name, dose and ending is cataloged in a computer, before being located on a shelf controlled by a robotic arm until it is desirable to be given to a patient. Some robots will create little containers for an individual patient that contains the drug needed for a defined time period. Groups of these containers are then prearranged by pharmacy technicians and delivered to suitable locations.

Friday, October 13, 2006

Medical error

In the United States medical error is predictable to result in 44,000 to 98,000 unnecessary deaths and 1,000,000 overload injuries each year. It is estimated that in a characteristic 100 to 300 bed hospital in the United States, excess costs of $1,000,000 to $3,000,000 attributable to extended stays and complications presently due to medication errors happen yearly. Medical care is often compared adversely to aviation, in that, while many of the factors which guide to error are similar, aviation's error management protocols are much additional effective.

Medical errors are linked with inexperienced clinicians, new procedures, and extremes of age, complex care and urgent care. Usually, errors are attributed to mistakes made by persons who may be penalized for these mistakes. The common approach to correct the errors is to create new policy with additional checking steps in the system, aiming to stop further errors. As an example, an error of complimentary flow IV administration of heparin is approached by education staff how to use the IV systems and to use particular care in setting the IV pump. While on the whole errors become less likely, the checks insert to workload and may in themselves be a cause of extra errors.

A newer model for development in medical care takes its origin from the work of W. Edwards Deming in a model of Total Quality Management. In this representation, systems of care are evaluated for procedure issues that may contribute to errors in care. As an illustration, in such a system the mistake of free flow IV administration of Heparin is dealt with by not using IV heparin and substituting subcutaneous management of heparin, obviating the whole problem. However, such a move toward presupposes available research showing that subcutaneous heparin is as valuable as IV. Thus, the majority systems use a mixture of approaches to the problem.

The field of medicine that has taken the guide in systems approaches to safety is Anesthesiology. Steps such as consistency of IV medications to 1 ml doses, national and international color coding standards and growth of improved airway support devices has made anesthesia care a model of systems upgrading in care.

Saturday, October 07, 2006

American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA) is the major association of medical doctors in the United States. AMA's point is to advance the interests of physicians, to endorse public health, to lobby for legislation positive to physicians and patients, and to raise cash for medical education.

The AMA publishes the periodical of the American Medical Association, which has the main circulation of any weekly medical journal in the world, nine medical field journals, and a weekly newspaper for physicians, the American Medical News. The AMA Physician Specialty Codes are a normal in the United States for identifying physician and practice specialties.

The allied American Medical Association Alliance is an organization of physicians and their spouses that is working to hold family medicine and to build fit communities.

The AMA Foundation provides around $1,000,000 annually in tuition assistance to economically constrained students. It funds consciousness projects about health literacy. It supports investigate funding for students and fellows around the US. It provides grants to population projects designed to support healthy lifestyles. The World scopes program has an objective of providing over 100,000 stethoscopes to third planet countries, donated from physicians and students.

Critics of the American Medical Association, including economist Milton Friedman, have asserted that the group acts as a government-sanctioned union and has attempted to raise physicians' wages and fees edge by influencing limitations on the deliver of physicians and non-physician competition. They declare that these actions have not only exaggerated the cost of healthcare in the United States, but have too have caused a decline in the excellence of healthcare.